In late 2019, a novel coronavirus emerged in China. Since then, it has rapidly spread throughout the world. This novel coronavirus is called SARS-CoV-2 and the disease that it causes is called COVID-19.
While some with COVID-19 have a mild illness, others may experience difficulty breathing, pneumonia, and even respiratory failure. Older individuals and those with underlying health conditions are most at risk for serious illness.
You may have heard a lot recently about using face masks to prevent infection. In fact, one recent study found that Google searches related to face masks spiked in Taiwan following the country’s first imported case.
So, are face masks effective and if so, when should you wear them? Read on to learn the answers to this question and more.
What Are The Two Primary Types Of Face Masks?
When you hear about face masks for COVID-19 prevention, it’s generally two types:
- the surgical mask
- the N95 respirator
Let’s explore each of them in a little more detail below.
Surgical masks are disposable, loose-fitting face masks that cover your nose, mouth, and chin. They’re typically used to:
- protect the wearer from sprays, splashes, and large-particle droplets
- prevent the spread of potentially infectious respiratory secretions from the wearer to others
Surgical masks can vary in design, but the mask itself is often flat and rectangular in shape with pleats or folds. The top of the mask contains a metal strip that can be formed to your nose.
Elastic bands or long, straight ties help hold a surgical mask in place while you’re wearing it. These can either be looped behind your ears or tied behind your head.
An N95 respirator is a more tight-fitting face mask. In addition to splashes, sprays, and large droplets, this respirator can also filter out 95 percent of very small particles. This includes viruses and bacteria.
The respirator itself is generally circular or oval in shape and is designed to form a tight seal to your face. Elastic bands help hold it firmly to your face. Some types may have an attachment called an exhalation valve, which can help with breathing and the buildup of heat and humidity.
N95 respirators aren’t one-size-fits-all. They actually must be fit-tested before use in order to make sure that a proper seal is formed. If the mask doesn’t seal effectively to your face, you won’t receive the appropriate protection.
After being fit-tested, users of N95 respirators must continue to perform a seal check each time they put one on. It’s also important to note that a tight seal can’t be achieved in some groups. These include children and people with facial hair.
What About Homemade Face Masks?
In response to the urgent need for face masks, many people have begun making their own from various materials, such as scarfs and antimicrobial pillowcases.
While these may offer some degree of protection, they offer a lot less protection than surgical masks or respirators.
- One study indicated that homemade masks may be half as effective as surgical masks and up to 50 times less effective than N95 masks.
- Another study showed that compared to homemade masks, surgical masks performed three times better in a bacterial filtration test and twice as well at blocking droplets in a cough test.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that in settings where face masks aren’t available, homemade face masks can be used as a last resort.
When considering this option, healthcare practitioners should exercise caution and preferably use them in combination with a face shield that covers the entire front and sides of the face and extends to the chin or below.
Can Wearing A Face Mask Protect Against The 2019 Coronavirus?
SARS-CoV-2 spreads from person to person via small respiratory droplets. These are generated when a person with the virus exhales, coughs, or sneezes. You can contract the virus if you breathe in these droplets.
Additionally, respiratory droplets containing the virus can land on various objects or surfaces. Touching a contaminated object or surface and then touching your eyes, nose, or mouth can also lead to infection.
Surgical masks can’t protect against infection with SARS-CoV-2. Not only does the mask not filter out smaller aerosol particles, but air leakage also occurs through the sides of the mask as you inhale.
N95 respirators can protect against smaller respiratory droplets, such as those containing SARS-CoV-2. However, the CDC currently doesn’t recommend their use outside of healthcare settings. There are a variety of reasons for this, including:
- N95 respirators should be fit-tested in order to be used appropriately. A poor seal can lead to leakage, lowering the respirator’s effectiveness.
- Due to their tight fit, N95 respirators can become uncomfortable and stuffy, making them difficult to wear for extended periods of time.
- Our worldwide supply of N95 respirators is limited, making it critical that healthcare workers and first responders have ready access to them.
Other Effective Ways To Prevent Covid-19
Remember that there are other effective ways besides using face masks to prevent becoming ill with COVID-19. These include:
Cleaning your hands frequently. Use soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
Practicing social distancing. Avoid contact with people who are sick, and stay at home if there are many COVID-19 cases in your community.
Being conscious of your face. Only touch your face or mouth with clean hands.
How To Use A Surgical Mask If You Have The 2019 Coronavirus
If you have symptoms of COVID-19, stay at home except to receive medical care. If you live with others or are visiting a healthcare provider, wear a surgical mask if one is available.
Remember that while surgical masks don’t protect against infection with SARS-CoV-2, they can help trap infectious respiratory secretions. This can be a vital tool in helping prevent the spread of the virus to others in your surroundings.
So, how do you properly use a surgical mask? Follow the steps below:
- Clean your hands, either by washing with soap and water or by using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
- Before putting the mask on, inspect it for any tears or holes.
- Locate the metal strip in the mask. This is the top of the mask.
- Orient the mask so that the colored side faces outward, or away from you.
- Place the top part of the mask on the bridge of your nose, molding the metal strip to the shape of your nose.
- Carefully loop the elastic bands behind your ears or tie the long, straight ties behind your head.
- Pull the bottom of the mask down, ensuring that it covers your nose, mouth, and chin.
- Try to avoid touching the mask while you’re wearing it. If you must touch or adjust your mask, be sure to clean your hands immediately afterward.
- To take off the mask, unloop the bands from behind your ears or undo the ties from behind your head. Avoid touching the front of the mask, which may be contaminated.
- Promptly dispose of the mask in a closed garbage bin, thoroughly cleaning your hands afterward.
You can look for surgical masks at various drugstores or grocery stores. You may also be able to order them online.
Using Surgical Masks In The Time Of Covid-19
Below are some best practices to keep in mind for face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic:
- Reserve N95 respirators for use by healthcare workers and first responders.
- Only wear a surgical mask if you’re currently ill with COVID-19 or are caring for someone at home who can’t wear a mask.
- Surgical masks are disposable. Don’t reuse them.
- Replace your surgical mask if it becomes damaged or damp.
- Always promptly discard your surgical mask in a closed garbage bin after removing it.
- Clean your hands before putting your surgical mask on and after you take it off. Additionally, clean your hands if you touch the front of the mask while you’re wearing it.
Should I Wear A Mask If I’m Taking Care Of Someone Who May Have Covid-19?
If you’re caring for someone at home that has COVID-19, there are steps that you can take regarding surgical masks, gloves, and cleaning. Aim to do the following:
- Isolate them in a separate area of the home away from other people, ideally providing them with a separate bathroom as well.
- Have a supply of surgical masks that they can wear, particularly if they’re going to be around others.
- Some people with COVID-19 may not be able to wear a surgical mask, as it may make breathing harder. If this is the case, plan to wear one when you’re helping to care for them in the same room.
- Use disposable gloves when handling soiled laundry. Throw the gloves away in a closed garbage bin after use and promptly wash your hands.
- Clean your hands frequently using soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Try not to touch your eyes, nose, or mouth if your hands aren’t clean.
- Remember to clean high-touch surfaces daily. This includes countertops, doorknobs, and keyboards.
Wearing a surgical mask won’t protect you from contracting SARS-CoV-2. However, it can help prevent you from spreading the virus to others.
While N95 respirators can protect against infection, they can only do so when used appropriately. People using N95 respirators need to be fit-tested to ensure that the respirator seals effectively.
If you have COVID-19 and need to be around others, wear a surgical mask. Also, plan to wear a surgical mask if you’re caring for someone at home that can’t wear one.
It’s very important that you only wear a face mask in the above situations. There’s currently a shortage of surgical masks and respirators, and healthcare workers and first responders urgently need them.
If you have unused surgical face masks, you can donate them by contacting your local hospital or fire department or by checking with your state health department.
Important Notice: This article was originally published at www.healthline.com by Jill Seladi-Schulman, Ph.D. where all credits are due. Medically reviewed by Meredith Goodwin, MD, FAAFP on March 24, 2020.